Pathology - Immunity and Neoplasia

2010/1: What is metaplasia and give some examples? How may metaplasia progress?

2010/1: What is type 2 hypersensitivity? Describe the different types of type 2 hypersensitivity reactions and give examples of each.

2009/1: Describe the steps involved in tumour cell invasion of the extracellular matrix. Describe possible mechanisms that influence the distribution of metastases.

2009/1: What is a Type I hypersensitivity reaction? What are the primary mediators within mast cell granules, and what are their actions? What characterizes the second, late-phase reaction?

2009/1: What is a paraneoplastic syndrome? What are the main types of paraneoplastic syndromes? What is the cause of cachexia in cancer?

2008/2: Give some examples of antibody-mediated (Type II) hypersensitivity. By what mechanisms is Type II hypersensitivity mediated?

2008/2: What is the complement system? Describe the main pathways by which complement activation occurs. How do activated complement products mediate acute inflammation?

2008/2: What is the pathogenesis of Type III hypersensitivity? What are the common sites for immune complex deposition? Give some examples of diseases caused by Type III hypersensitivity.

2007/2: What is metaplasia? Give some examples of metaplasia. What is the mechanism causing metaplasia?

2007/2: What is Type I hypersensitivity? Describe the two phases that occur. List some agents that can cause Type I hypersensitivity.

2007/2: What is Type IV hypersensitivity? What is a delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction? What is T-cell mediated cytotoxicity?

2007/2: Describe the pathogenesis of atopic asthma.

2007/1: Name some environmental triggers for atopic asthma. What are the pathological steps of the acute response? What cells are involved in the late phase response? Describe some of the inflammatory mediators involved.

2006/2: Describe the role of complement in inflammation. Of the complement components, which are the most important inflammatory mediators?

2006/1: What is meant by the term atopic asthma? Outline the events occurring in the immediate phase. Which mediators are involved in atopic asthma?

2005/2: What are the phases in the pathogenesis of systemic immune complex disease? What chemical mediators contribute to immune complex mediated tissue injury?

2005/2: What are the major mechanisms involved in Type II hypersensitivity reactions? How does Type II hypersensitivity bring about change in cellular function?

2005/1: How do cancers invade the extracellular matrix? What is the importance of matrix metalloproteinases in this process?

2005/1: How do tumour cells metastasize? Why do some tumours metastasize to sites other than their natural blood and lymphatic drainage areas?

2005/1: What is a paraneoplastic syndrome? What are the mechanisms by which they can occur? What are some examples?

2004/2: What is metaplasia? Please give examples of metaplasia. What causes metaplasia?

2003/2: What are the major pathological sequelae of HIV infection? What are the modes of transmission of HIV?

2003/2: What is Type III hypersensitivity? What kinds of antigens cause it?

2003/1: Where are B lymphocytes located? How do B cells respond to antigenic stimulation? How are B cells activated in graft-versus-host reactions?

2003/1: What is the role of complement in systemic immune complex disease? What is an Arthus reaction?

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