Physiology - Renal & Acid Base

2010/1: Describe the renal response to metabolic acidosis.

2010/1: What is the normal range of osmolality of the extracellular fluid? How is it maintained? What other stimuli affect vasopressin secretion?

2010/1: What general mechanisms are involved in renal tubular reabsorption and secretion? How is Sodium reabsorped in the various parts of the nephron?

2009/2: Discuss how and where H+ is secreted in the kidney. (Prompt: How is Bicarbonate involved?). What is the limiting pH for urine and how is this limitation dealt with?

2009/2: Describe how sodium is handled in the glomerulus and the proximal convoluted tubule. List the mechanisms that affect sodium reabsorption.

2009/1: How is the H+ ion secreted in the proximal tubule of the kidney. Outline the buffer systems that act to bind H+ ion in the tubular fluid. What is the importance of H+ buffering systems in the urine

2009/1: Describe the counter current mechanism of the kidney.

2009/1: Where does sodium reabsorption occur in the nephron? What are the mechanisms of sodium reabsorption in the nephron? What mechanisms in the kidney reduce sodium excretion?

2008/2: Describe the physiologic process of micturition? List other factors that stimulate and inhibit micturition.

2008/2: Describe how the nephron handles potassium? What factors influence this?

2008/2: What is normal renal blood flow and how can it be measured? How do blood flow and oxygen extraction vary in different parts of the kidney?

2008/1: How does the kidney handle potassium? How do other ions affect potassium transport across the membranes in the nephron?

2008/1: What is a typical value for renal blood flow in an adult at rest? What factors regulate renal blood flow?

2008/1: Please outline the structure of the loop of Henley. What happens to electrolytes in the loop? Explain the counter-current concentrating mechanism.

2007/2: Describe a method for measuring the glomerular filtration rate. What is the normal GFR and what are the factors which affect it?

2007/2: Describe water handling in the collecting ducts of the kidneys. What is an osmotic diuresis?

2007/2: Please describe how the urinary bladder empties. Describe the reflex control associated with voiding.

2006/1: What factors affect glomerular filtration?

2006/1: Describe how water is reabsorbed in the different parts of the nephron. What hormonal factors influence water excretion?

2006/1: What are the major physiological factors affecting sodium excretion from the kidney? What are the major physiological factors affecting potassium excretion from the kidney?

2005/2: What are the major buffers of blood? How do they work? What are the major buffers in cells? Describe the Henderson-Hasselbach equation.

2005/2: Describe how respiration compensates for acid-base change. What clinical conditions might cause metabolic acidosis/ metabolic alkalosis?

2005/2: Describe the structure of the loop of Henle. Describe the function of the loop of Henle.

2005/1: What is the renal response respiratory acidosis? What buffering systems are there for H+ in the renal tubular fluid?

2005/1: How is the secretion of rennin regulated? Describe juxtaglomerular apparatus.

2005/1: What factors affect filtration across the glomerular capillary bed? How can GFR be measured?

2004/2: What happens to potassium as it passes through the nephron? How does the potassium handling by the kidney change in response to changes in pH? How is aldosterone increase K secretion?

2003/1: What is a normal Glomerular Filtration Rate in humans? What factors would cause a decrease in GFR?

2003/1: What is the renal response to acidaemia? Describe the buffer systems involved.