Physiology - Cardiovascular - Cardiac

2010/1: Please draw a diagram of the changes of systolic and diastolic pressure as blood flows through the systemic circulation. How does the total cross-sectional area of vessels change through the systemic circulation?

2009/2: Draw and explain the action potential in a cardiac pacemaker cell. Describe the major differences between a cardiac myocyte action potential and the pacemaker.

2009/2: Draw the Frank Starling curve. List the factors that alter contractility.

2009/2: On this sheet of paper, please draw the ECG trace and, below this identify the 5 phases the cardiac (contractile) cycle.

2009/2: On this sheet of paper, please draw an ECG trace and below this, demonstrate the left ventricular volume trace. Please give approximate volume values on the y axis.

2009/1: In the heart, describe the pressure and volume changes in the ventricles at the onset of systole. Describe the pressure changes in the ventricles at the onset of diastole.

2009/1: What are the factors determine myocardial oxygen demand? What effect does an increase in preload and afterload have on myocardial O2 demand?

2009/2: Draw the action potential in a cardiac pacemaker cell, and explain the ion fluxes. How do sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation change the prepotential?

2008/2: Please draw a normal ECG tracing, showing the durations of the major intervals. How does the ECG change with hyperkalaemia? How does it change with hypokalaemia?

2008/1: What factors affect cardiac output? What are the major factors which determine myocardial oxygen consumption?

2007/2: Please describe or draw an action potential in ventricular muscle? What are the ion fluxes that produce this action potential? How does the ECG relate to the ventricular muscle action potential?

2007/2: Please draw and label a diagram of the jugular venous pressure wave. Explain the origins of the fluctuations of this wave. How does the ECG relate to the jugular venous pressure wave?

2006/1: Please draw a normal electrocardiogram. What do the different segments represent?

2006/1: How does stroke volume relate to end diastolic volume in the heart? What factors affect cardiac contractility?

2005/2: Describe the action potential in cardiac muscle fibre. Why does tetany not occur in cardiac muscle?

2005/1: Describe the phases of the cardiac cycle. Relate the aortic pressure to the phases of the cardiac cycle.

2003/2: What are the parameters that define cardiac output? What factors influence stroke volume? What are the factors that influence contractility?

2003/2: Describe the mechanical events that occur during the cardiac cycle. When do the heart sounds occur?

2003/2: What is the normal Central Venous pressure at rest? Describe the factors that determine Central Venous Pressure.