Pathology Normal Cell and Cellular Injury

2010/1: What is apoptosis? List some important stimuli for apoptosis?

2009/2: What are the morphological and chemical changes associated with early cell injury? What are the phenomena that characterize irreversible cell injury? Give an example of a protein that leaks across degraded cell membranes.

2009/1: Describe the types of damage that occur inside a cell after severe ischaemia.

2008/2: What is the difference between ischaemic and hypoxic injury? Describe the morphologic intracellular changes that occur in ischaemic injury.

2008/2: Describe the sequence of cellular events in acute inflammation.

2008/1: What is apoptosis? Describe the physiologic situations where apoptosis occurs.

2007/1: What is hyperplasia? What are the cellular mechanisms of physiological hyperplasia? Please give examples of pathological hyperplasia.

2007/1: What is atrophy? What are the pathological types of atrophy? Give some examples of atrophy.

2007/1: What is hypertrophy? What are the types of hypertrophy? Give examples of physiologic and pathologic hypertrophy.

2006/2: What is apoptosis? Under what conditions may apoptosis occur? What happens at a cellular level?

2006/1: What is irreversible injury in cells after a period of ischaemia? What changes are observed in these cells' structures and contents?

2005/2: Describe the mechanisms of ischaemic cell injury. What are the differences between ischaemic cell injury and hypoxic cell injury?

2005/2: What is apoptosis? Describe the mechanisms that result in apoptosis?

2004/2: Describe the morphological changes that occur in cells during acute ischaemia.

2004/2: Describe the biochemical features of cell injury.

2004/2: What is apoptosis? Give some examples of apoptosis.

2003/2: Describe the morphological changes seen in cells with reversible ischaemia. What metabolic changes occur in reversible ischaemia?

2003/2: Describe the morphological changes seen in cells with irreversible ischaemia. What metabolic changes occur in irreversible ischaemia?